Main site navigation

Opportunisitc infection

Gallery

Alternative Names
  • Co-infection
  • Hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS
  • Hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS
  • Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS
Summary

Note: Topic descriptions are intended to be a search aid rather than an authoritative or complete definition.

Details

Illnesses caused by various organisms, which usually do not cause disease in persons with healthy immune systems, are opportunistic infections. Persons living with advanced HIV infection may be susceptible to opportunistic infections affecting the lungs, brain, eyes, and other organs. Common opportunistic infections amongst persons diagnosed with AIDS include Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cryptosporidiosis, histoplasmosis, bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infections, cancers, and tuberculosis.

Prepared by: Adam Bowles

Related Entries

Related Topics

Published Resources

Books

  • Narain, Jai P. (ed), AIDS in Asia: The Challenge Ahead, Sage, New Delhi, 2004, 395 pp. [ Details... ]

Reports

  • Partnerships in Practice: National HIV/AIDS Strategy 1996-97 to 1998-99, A strategy framed in the context of sexual health and related communicable diseases, Australian Government Publication Service, Canberra, December 1996, 87 pp. (Also available at http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Content pip.pdfhttp://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Contenthttp://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf) [ Details... ]
  • National Policy on HIV/AIDS and STD Related Issues, Director General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, November 1996, 92 pp. (Also available at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/trav/aids/laws bangladeshnationalpolicy.pdf) [ Details... ]
  • WHO Guidelines on HIV Infection and AIDS in Prisons, UNAIDS Best Practice Collection, UNAIDS/99.47/E (English original, September 1999), UNAIDS - Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, September 1999, 9 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • Comments on the Draft Declaration of Commitment for the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on HIV/AIDS from Civil Society Organizations Meeting in Geneva 25-27 April, 2001, ICASO - International Council of AIDS Service Organizations, May 1 2001, 17 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • The Work of WHO on HIV/AIDS: Progress Report, WHO/HIV/2002.18, WHO - World Health Organization, Geneva, September 2002, 31 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Therapy in Papua New Guinea, November 2003, 9 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • The Pacific Regional Strategy and Key Actions on HIV/AIDS 2004-2008, (Second Draft), SPC - Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 11th May 2004, 28 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Tuberculosis and HIV: A Framework to AddressTB/HIV Co-Infection in the Western Pacific Region, World Health Organization, 2004, 46 pp. (Also available at http://www.wpro.who.int/NR/rdonlyres/4CB64411-52DE-45E2-8E22-0BD0E7A4D168/0 TB_HIV_framework.pdf) [ Details... ]
  • Guidelines For Management of TB in HIV Infected, NACO - National AIDS Control Organisation, New Delhi, n/d, 30 pp. (Also available at http://www.saathii.org/resources_materials/downloads/TB_HIV_.doc) [ Details... ]
  • AFAO - Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations, Peer Education and Needle & Syringe Provision: An AFAO Discussion Paper, Dave Burrows, May 1996, 5 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • AFAO - Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations, A Response at the Crossroads: Submission to the Review of the 4th National HIV/AIDS Strategy, AFAO, Darlinghurst, 31 May 2002, 89 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • AIDS/STD Section, Disease Control Division, Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, Plan of Action for the Prevention and Control of HIV Infection, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, 1998, 137 pp. [ Details... ]
  • ANCARD - Australian National Council on AIDS & Related Diseases, The National Indigenous Australians' Sexual Health Strategy 1996-97 to 1998-99, A Report of the ANCARD Working Party on Indigenous Australians' Sexual Health, Looking Glass Press for Publications and Design (Public Affairs) Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services, Canberra, 1997, 122 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • AusAID Health and HIV Thematic Group, Towards a New International HIV Strategy for Australia, Consultation Paper, AusAID - Australian Agency for International Development, May 2008, 21 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • Constantine, Janine, Turning the Tide: An OPEN Strategy for a Response to AIDS in the Pacific, Report of the Commission on AIDS in the Pacific – Suva, Fiji : UNAIDS Pacific Region, 2009 - Presented to Mr Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary General, on 2 December 2009 in New York, UNAIDS Pacific Region, Fiji, Bangkok, December 2009, 150 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • Core Group of the TB/HIV Working Group of the Stop TB Partnership, Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) for People Living with HIV: Consensus Statement of the Core Group of the TB/HIV Working Group of the Stop TB Partnership, n/d. (Also available at http://www.aidsportal.org/repos/IPConsensus.pdf) [ Details... ]
  • Department of Health and Ageing, National Hepatitis C Strategy 2005-2008, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2005, 54 pp. (Also available at http://www.vicaids.asn.au/contentfilesuploaded/hepatitis_C.pdf) [ Details... ]
  • Dhaliwal, Mandeep & Tom Ellman, Improving Access to Anti-Retroviral Treatment in Cambodia, KHANA - Khmer HIV/AIDS NGO Alliance, September 2003, 47 pp. (Also available at http://synkronweb.aidsalliance.org/graphics/secretariat/publications kh0903_Cambodia_access_to_treatment.pdf) [ Details... ]
  • Duffell, Erika and Igor Toskin, Guidelines for HIV Surveillance among Tuberculosis Patients, Second Edition
    WHO/HTM/TB/2004.339 WHO/HIV/2004.06 UNAIDS/04.30E, WHO - World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004, 38 pp. (Also available at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2004/WHO_HTM_TB_2004.339.pdf) [ Details... ]
  • FHI - Family Health International, Tuberculosis Control in High HIV Prevalent Areas: A Strategic Framework, FHI, Arlington, VA, 2001, 20 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • Godfrey-Faussett, Peter, Policy Statement on Preventive Therapy Against Tuberculosis in People Living With HIV: Report of a Meeting Held in Geneva, 18-20 February 1998, WHO/TB/98.255 UNAIDS/98.34, UNAIDS; World Health Organization, UNAIDS, WHO, 1998, 20 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • HIV/AIDS & STI Section, PHP, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, The Pacific Regional Strategy on HIV/AIDS 2004-2008 (Final Working Draft), (Final Working Draft), SPC - Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 5th July 2004, 32 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • Larson, Heidi J. and Jai Prakash Narain, Beyond 2000: Responding to HIV/AIDS in the New Millennium, SEA/AIDS/122, World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia, New Delhi, 2001, 72 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • Ministry of Health, Government, Guanyu Jiaqiang Yufang he Kongzhi Aizibing Gongzuo de Yijian (Recommendations on Reinforcement of HIV Prevention and Control), Ministry of Health, Government of China, 1995. (Also available at http://www.chinaids.org.cn/zhq/ShowContent.asp?lm=031&sn=663) [ Details... ]
  • Ministry of Public Health, Thailand and the World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia, External Review of the Health Sector Response to HIV/AIDS in Thailand, World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia & Ministry of Public Health, Government of Thailand, New Delhi, 7-19 August, 2005, 68 pp. (Also available at http://searo.who.int/LinkFiles/News_and_Events_ThailandProgrammeReviewNEW.pdf) [ Details... ]
  • National Center For AIDS and STD Control, National Guidelines for Antiretroviral (ARV) Therapy, Ministry of Health, Government of the Kingdom of Nepal, Kathmandu, 2003, 49 pp. (Also available at http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/pdf/countries/nepal1.pdf) [ Details... ]
  • National Centre for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STI Control, National Strategic Plan STD/HIV/AIDS: Prevention and Care in Cambodia 1998-2000, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Cambodia, n/d, 22 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Open Society Institute International Harm Reduction Development Program, Delivering HIV Care and Treatment for People Who Use Drugs: Lessons From Research and Practice, Curtis, Matt (Ed.), Open Society Institute, July 2006, 294 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • Open Society Institute Public Health Program, Civil Society Perspectives on TB/HIV Policy, A preview of forthcoming reports on TB policy in Bangladesh, Brazil, Nigeria, Tanzania and Thailand., Open Society Institute, 2006, 36 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • POLICY Project, HIV/AIDS in the Mekong Region: Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, & Viet Nam, Current Situation, Future Projections, Socioeconomic Impacts, and Recommendations, POLICY Project, June 2003, 64 pp. (Also available at http://www.policyproject.com/pubs/generalreport/ACF1B3.pdf) [ Details... ]
  • Regional Strategic Reference Group - HIV & STIs, Working Draft of the Pacific Regional Strategy on HIV and Other STIs (2009-2013), Working Draft v.3, n/d, 15 pp. (Also available at http://www.spc.int/hiv/images pacificregionalstrategyonhivandotherstis-2009-2013%20_edited%20v%203_.pdf) [ Details... ]
  • Scientific Committee on AIDS and STI (SCAS), Centre for Health Protection, Department of Health, The Use of BCG Vaccine in HIV Infected Patients, Centre for Health Protection, November 2009, 9 pp. (Also available at http://www.info.gov.hk/aids/pdf/g215.pdf) [ Details... ]
  • Secretariat of the Pacific Community, HIV/STI Section, The Pacific Regional Strategy on HIV and other STIs for 2009-2013, 614.5993 AACR2, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 2009, 23 pp. [ Details... ]
  • Steering Committee, National Communicable Diseases Surveillance Strategy and Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services on behalf of the Chief Health Officers of Australia, National Communicable Diseases Surveillance Strategy, Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services, Canberra, n/d, 22 pp. (Also available at http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Content ncdss.pdfhttp://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Contenthttp://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf) [ Details... ]
  • Stop TB Department and Department of HIV/AIDS, WHO - World Health Organization, Strategic Framework to Decrease the Burden of TB/HIV, WHO - World Health Organization, Geneva, 2002, 49 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • Stop TB Department and Department of HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization, Interim Policy on Collaborative TB/HIV Activities, WHO - World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004, 20 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • The UN Theme Group on HIV in China, HIV/AIDS: China's Titanic Peril 2001: Update of the AIDS Situation and Needs Assessment Report, UNAIDS - The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, June 2002, 91 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • Tripathy, Prof Sriram Prasad, Dr Ying Ru J. Lo, and Dr. Jai. P. Narain, Regional Strategic Plan on HIV/TB, WHO Project: ICP HIV 001, ICP TUB 001, World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia, New Delhi, October 2003, 69 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • UNAIDS - Joint United Nations Proramme on HIV/AIDS, Joint Action for Results: UNAIDS Outcome Framework 2009-2011, “UNAIDS/09.13E / JC1713E”., UNAIDS, Geneva, March 2010, 16 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • UNAIDS - The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS; PNAC - Philippines National AIDS Council, Country Profile: HIV/AIDS/STD situation in the Philippines and the national response, UNAIDS, August 1998. [ Details... ]
  • UNAIDS - The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS; WHO - World Health Organization, Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Policies and Principles for Prevention and Care, UNAIDS Best Practice Collection, UNAIDS; WHO, 1 June 1997, 48 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • UNESCAP - United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Life Skills Training Guide for Young People: HIV/AIDS and Substance Use Prevention, ST/ESCAP/2317, United Nations, New York, 2003, 391 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, HIV/AIDS and Refugees: UNHCR's Strategic Plan 2002-2004, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 1 Jan 2004, 26 pp. (Also available at http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/lib.nsf/db900SID/LHON-679DWG/$FILE HIV-AIDS_Strategic_Plan_UNHCR_Jan_2004.pdf?OpenElement) [ Details... ]
  • WHO - Regional Office for the Western Pacific, HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment: Guide for Implementation, WHO - World Health Organization, Geveva, December 2004, 109 pp. (Also available at http://www.wpro.who.int/NR/rdonlyres/49BC4F23-0DCC-4D28-A50A-4F755BC475EE/0 HIV_AIDS_Care_and_Treatment_Guide_for_Implementation.pdf) [ Details... ]
  • WHO - World Health Organization, Investing in a Comprehensive Health Sector Response to HIV/AIDS: Scaling up Treatment and Accelerating Prevention, WHO HIV/AIDS Plan for January 2004-December 2005, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004, 72 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • WHO - World Health Organization, World Health Report 2004 - Changing History, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004, xvii, 170 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • WHO - World Health Organization, Scaling Up Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-limited Settings: Treatment Guidelines for a Public Health Approach, 2003 Revision, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004, 68 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • WHO - World Health Organization, Department of HIV/AIDS, Family and Community Health Cluster, Scaling Up Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Limited Settings: Guidelines for a Public Health Approach., WHO - World Health Organization, Geneva, April 2002, 82 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]
  • WHO - World Health Organization, UNAIDS - The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and UNICEF - The United Nations Children's Fund, Towards Universal Access: Scaling Up Priority HIV/AIDS Interventions in the Health Sector: Progress Report 2009, WHO, 2009, 165 pp. (Also available at http://www.hivandsrh.org/newsletter/Towards_universal_access.pdf) [ Details... ]
  • WHO - World Health Organization, UNAIDS - The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, UNODC - United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and GFATM - The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, A Strategy to Halt and Reverse the HIV Epidemic Amoung People Who Inject Drugs in Asia and the Pacific 2010-2015, WHO, Geneva, July 2010, 77 pp. (Also available at http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/lib.nsf/db900sid/ASAZ-873HHH/$file UNAIDS_Jul2010.pdf?openelement) [ Details... ]
  • Wilkinson, David John, Linking HIV and TB - Underlying Issues to Consider when Scaling Up Integration of HIV and TB Services in Cambodia, International HIV/AIDS Alliance, Phnom Penh, December 2001, 15 pp. [ PDF File | Details... ]