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Journal Article


Ford, Kathleen; Dewa Nyoman Wirawan; Peter Fajans
AIDS Knowledge, Condom Beliefs and Sexual Behaviour Among Male Sex Workers and Male Tourist Clients in Bali, Indonesia
Health Transition Review
vol. 3, no. 2, 1993, pp. 191-204

This project is a collaborative effort of the School of Medicine of Udayana University in Bali, Indonesia and
the School of Public Health of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Financial support for this study was provided by Family Health International with funds from the United States Agency for International Development.


"The objective of this paper is to describe the AIDS knowledge and risk behaviours of male sex workers who serve predominantly male clients in Bali, Indonesia, to discuss implications for the spread of the disease, and to discuss appropriate interventions for these groups. Data are drawn from a qualitative study of the workers and clients consisting of interviews with many open-ended questions. The results of the study are viewed in terms of the AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM). The data indicate that there is a very active community of male sex workers and male clients in Bali that is at risk of AIDS infection. Multiple sexual partners, unprotected anal intercourse, and frequent experience with STDs put both workers and clients at risk. Workers had limited knowledge of AIDS and STDs, although clients were mainly well informed. Both groups were characterized by frequent mobility. High levels of alcohol use by clients were reported before and during sexual encounters and may be a factor in increasing risky sexual behaviours. Interventions for these groups should include improving knowledge of workers, improving STD treatment for both clients and workers, skills training for sex workers, and
increasing availability of good quality condoms and lubricants."

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